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abu.edu.ng
  • Domain Name
    abu.edu.ng
  • Favicon
  • Google Page Rank
    6
  • Alexa Rank
    #73077
  • Page Size
    24.3 KB
  • Ip Address
    41.203.92.117
  • Heading
    H1: 0, H2: 5, H3: 7, H4: 0, H5: 0, H6: 0
  • Images
    28 GIF, 1 JPG, 0 PNG

Website Meta Analysis

  • Title
    Home | Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • Meta Keyword
  • Meta Description
    Home About Degree Programmes Central Administration Research/Publications Search for Staff Alumni Web Mail Login Categories Enquiries Directorate of University Advancement Division of Agricultural Colleges(DAC) ICT Directorate Faculties Postgraduate ...

Technical Analysis

  • Webserver
    Apache
  • Ip Address
    41.203.92.117
  • Domain Age
  • Javascript Library
    jquery
  • Language used
    HTML, CSS, Javascript

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) header show data header response from abu.edu.ng.

HTML Analysis

  • date: Mon, 07 Oct 2013 19:38:20 GMT
  • server: Apache
  • x-powered-by: PHP/5.3.10-1ubuntu3.8
  • expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
  • cache-control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0
  • pragma: no-cache
  • vary: Accept-Encoding
  • content-encoding: gzip
  • content-length: 5766
  • content-type: text/html
  • x-google-cache-control: remote-fetch
  • via: HTTP/1.1 GWA
No data whois for abu.edu.ng

DNS Analysis


DNS servers
vres2.tinitop.com [208.77.98.30]
vres1.tinitop.com


DNS Records

Answer records
abu.edu.ng A 41.203.92.117 3600s
abu.edu.ng MX
preference: 0
exchange: mail.abu.edu.ng
14400s
abu.edu.ng SOA
server: vres1.tinitop.com
email: dewole@ajao.tinitop.com.ng
serial: 2012030918
refresh: 86400
retry: 7200
expire: 3600000
minimum ttl: 86400
86400s
abu.edu.ng NS  vres2.tinitop.com 86400s
abu.edu.ng NS  vres1.tinitop.com 86400s

Authority records

Additional records
mail.abu.edu.ng A 196.220.64.4 3600s

IP 41.203.92.117 Analysis

  • Country Code
    NG
  • Country Code3
    NGA
  • Country Name
    Nigeria
  • City
    Lagos
  • Continent Code
    AF
  • Latitude
    6.4531
  • Longitude
    3.3958
  • % This is the AfriNIC Whois server.

    % Note: this output has been filtered.

    % Information related to '41.203.92.0 - 41.203.92.255'

    inetnum: 41.203.92.0 - 41.203.92.255
    netname: GLO-1
    descr: glo1 network
    country: NG
    admin-c: PA2-AFRINIC
    tech-c: PA2-AFRINIC
    status: ASSIGNED PA
    mnt-by: GLO-ONLINE-ADMIN
    source: AFRINIC # Filtered
    parent: 41.203.64.0 - 41.203.95.255

    person: Prasoon Agarwal
    nic-hdl: PA2-AFRINIC
    address: 1- Mike Adenuga Close, Victoria Island
    address: Lagos
    address: Lagos
    address: Nigeria
    e-mail: michael.okoduwa@gloworld.com
    phone: +2348055571050
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In Page Analysis

Traffic Analysis

Magestic Backlinks
Daily Ranks
Rank Trend
Visitor Trend
Bounce Trend

HTML Analysis

HTML validation
  • 72 Errors
  • 27 Warnings
Ratio Text/Html
  • 0.4986945169712794
Message Error
  • Error Line 9, Column 68: end tag for "link" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" href="./favicon.ico">

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 9, Column 1: start tag was here
    <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" href="./favicon.ico">
  • Error Line 81, Column 35: there is no attribute "target"
    			<li><a href="index.php" target="_self" title="Home" id="current">Home</a></l…

    You have used the attribute named above in your document, but the document type you are using does not support that attribute for this element. This error is often caused by incorrect use of the "Strict" document type with a document that uses frames (e.g. you must use the "Transitional" document type to get the "target" attribute), or by using vendor proprietary extensions such as "marginheight" (this is usually fixed by using CSS to achieve the desired effect instead).

    This error may also result if the element itself is not supported in the document type you are using, as an undefined element will have no supported attributes; in this case, see the element-undefined error message for further information.

    How to fix: check the spelling and case of the element and attribute, (Remember XHTML is all lower-case) and/or check that they are both allowed in the chosen document type, and/or use CSS instead of this attribute. If you received this error when using the <embed> element to incorporate flash media in a Web page, see the FAQ item on valid flash.

  • Warning Line 96, Column 84: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "fac"
    ….ng/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Colle…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 96, Column 84: general entity "fac" not defined and no default entity
    ….ng/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Colle…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 96, Column 87: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Colleges…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 96, Column 87: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Colleges…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 96, Column 87: reference to entity "fac" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Colleges…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 96, Column 83: entity was defined here
    …u.ng/faculty/view_history.php?facid=21&fac=Division%20of%20Agricultural%20Coll…
  • Warning Line 105, Column 49: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "cid"
    …    <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 105, Column 49: general entity "cid" not defined and no default entity
    …    <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 52: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    … <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 52: reference to external entity in attribute value
    … <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 105, Column 52: reference to entity "cid" for which no system identifier could be generated
    … <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 105, Column 48: entity was defined here
    …     <li><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did…
  • Warning Line 105, Column 56: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "cnm"
    …><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 105, Column 56: general entity "cnm" not defined and no default entity
    …><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 59: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    … href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Ac…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 59: reference to external entity in attribute value
    … href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Ac…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 105, Column 59: reference to entity "cnm" for which no system identifier could be generated
    … href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Ac…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 105, Column 55: entity was defined here
    …i><a href="./unit/index.php?t=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dn…
  • Warning Line 105, Column 85: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "did"
    …v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitori…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 105, Column 85: general entity "did" not defined and no default entity
    …v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitori…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 88: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …id=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring"…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 88: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …id=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring"…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 105, Column 88: reference to entity "did" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …id=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring"…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 105, Column 84: entity was defined here
    …=v&cid=14&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitor…
  • Warning Line 105, Column 93: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "dnm"
    …&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Acad…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 105, Column 93: general entity "dnm" not defined and no default entity
    …&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Acad…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 96: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …m=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Academi…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 105, Column 96: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …m=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Academi…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 105, Column 96: reference to entity "dnm" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …m=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Academi…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 105, Column 92: entity was defined here
    …4&cnm=Vice Chancellor's Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Aca…
  • Warning Line 105, Column 115: character "&" is the first character of a delimiter but occurred as data
    …s Office&did=109&dnm=Academic Planning & Monitoring">Academic Planning</a></li>

    This message may appear in several cases:

    • You tried to include the "<" character in your page: you should escape it as "&lt;"
    • You used an unescaped ampersand "&": this may be valid in some contexts, but it is recommended to use "&amp;", which is always safe.
    • Another possibility is that you forgot to close quotes in a previous tag.
  • Error Line 146, Column 14: there is no attribute "name"
    		<form name="loginarea" id="loginarea" autocomplete="off" method="post" action…

    You have used the attribute named above in your document, but the document type you are using does not support that attribute for this element. This error is often caused by incorrect use of the "Strict" document type with a document that uses frames (e.g. you must use the "Transitional" document type to get the "target" attribute), or by using vendor proprietary extensions such as "marginheight" (this is usually fixed by using CSS to achieve the desired effect instead).

    This error may also result if the element itself is not supported in the document type you are using, as an undefined element will have no supported attributes; in this case, see the element-undefined error message for further information.

    How to fix: check the spelling and case of the element and attribute, (Remember XHTML is all lower-case) and/or check that they are both allowed in the chosen document type, and/or use CSS instead of this attribute. If you received this error when using the <embed> element to incorporate flash media in a Web page, see the FAQ item on valid flash.

  • Error Line 146, Column 54: there is no attribute "autocomplete"
    …loginarea" id="loginarea" autocomplete="off" method="post" action="/index.php">

    You have used the attribute named above in your document, but the document type you are using does not support that attribute for this element. This error is often caused by incorrect use of the "Strict" document type with a document that uses frames (e.g. you must use the "Transitional" document type to get the "target" attribute), or by using vendor proprietary extensions such as "marginheight" (this is usually fixed by using CSS to achieve the desired effect instead).

    This error may also result if the element itself is not supported in the document type you are using, as an undefined element will have no supported attributes; in this case, see the element-undefined error message for further information.

    How to fix: check the spelling and case of the element and attribute, (Remember XHTML is all lower-case) and/or check that they are both allowed in the chosen document type, and/or use CSS instead of this attribute. If you received this error when using the <embed> element to incorporate flash media in a Web page, see the FAQ item on valid flash.

  • Error Line 160, Column 25: document type does not allow element "div" here; missing one of "object", "ins", "del", "map", "button" start-tag
    		<h2><div class="title">Student Links</div></h2>

    The mentioned element is not allowed to appear in the context in which you've placed it; the other mentioned elements are the only ones that are both allowed there and can contain the element mentioned. This might mean that you need a containing element, or possibly that you've forgotten to close a previous element.

    One possible cause for this message is that you have attempted to put a block-level element (such as "<p>" or "<table>") inside an inline element (such as "<a>", "<span>", or "<font>").

  • Error Line 164, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 164, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 164, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 170, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 170, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 170, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 176, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 176, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 176, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 181, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 181, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 181, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 187, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 187, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 187, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Warning Line 188, Column 80: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "category"
    …dmission/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate Fir…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 188, Column 80: general entity "category" not defined and no default entity
    …dmission/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate Fir…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 188, Column 88: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admis…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 188, Column 88: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admis…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 188, Column 88: reference to entity "category" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admis…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 188, Column 79: entity was defined here
    …admission/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate Fi…
  • Warning Line 188, Column 92: cannot generate system identifier for general entity "list"
    …dmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admission…

    An entity reference was found in the document, but there is no reference by that name defined. Often this is caused by misspelling the reference name, unencoded ampersands, or by leaving off the trailing semicolon (;). The most common cause of this error is unencoded ampersands in URLs as described by the WDG in "Ampersands in URLs".

    Entity references start with an ampersand (&) and end with a semicolon (;). If you want to use a literal ampersand in your document you must encode it as "&amp;" (even inside URLs!). Be careful to end entity references with a semicolon or your entity reference may get interpreted in connection with the following text. Also keep in mind that named entity references are case-sensitive; &Aelig; and &aelig; are different characters.

    If this error appears in some markup generated by PHP's session handling code, this article has explanations and solutions to your problem.

    Note that in most documents, errors related to entity references will trigger up to 5 separate messages from the Validator. Usually these will all disappear when the original problem is fixed.

  • Error Line 188, Column 92: general entity "list" not defined and no default entity
    …dmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admission…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Warning Line 188, Column 96: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admission Lis…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 188, Column 96: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admission Lis…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 188, Column 96: reference to entity "list" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admission Lis…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 188, Column 91: entity was defined here
    …admission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admissio…
  • Error Line 192, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 192, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 192, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Warning Line 193, Column 88: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementa…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 193, Column 88: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementa…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 193, Column 88: reference to entity "category" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementa…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 188, Column 79: entity was defined here
    …admission/pgadmission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate Fi…
  • Warning Line 193, Column 96: reference not terminated by REFC delimiter
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementary Admis…

    If you meant to include an entity that starts with "&", then you should terminate it with ";". Another reason for this error message is that you inadvertently created an entity by failing to escape an "&" character just before this text.

  • Warning Line 193, Column 96: reference to external entity in attribute value
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementary Admis…

    This is generally the sign of an ampersand that was not properly escaped for inclusion in an attribute, in a href for example. You will need to escape all instances of '&' into '&amp;'.

  • Error Line 193, Column 96: reference to entity "list" for which no system identifier could be generated
    …sion.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=suppl">Postgraduate Supplementary Admis…

    This is usually a cascading error caused by a an undefined entity reference or use of an unencoded ampersand (&) in an URL or body text. See the previous message for further details.

  • Info Line 188, Column 91: entity was defined here
    …admission.php?session=2012&category=pg&list=first">Postgraduate First Admissio…
  • Error Line 198, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 198, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 198, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 203, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 203, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 203, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 210, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 210, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 210, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 244, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 244, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 244, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 266, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 266, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 266, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 275, Column 25: document type does not allow element "div" here; missing one of "object", "ins", "del", "map", "button" start-tag
    		<h2><div class="title">News &amp; Events</div></h2>

    The mentioned element is not allowed to appear in the context in which you've placed it; the other mentioned elements are the only ones that are both allowed there and can contain the element mentioned. This might mean that you need a containing element, or possibly that you've forgotten to close a previous element.

    One possible cause for this message is that you have attempted to put a block-level element (such as "<p>" or "<table>") inside an inline element (such as "<a>", "<span>", or "<font>").

  • Error Line 279, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 279, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 279, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 285, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 285, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 285, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 290, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 290, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 290, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 295, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 295, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 295, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 312, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 312, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 312, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 317, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 317, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 317, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 324, Column 67: required attribute "alt" not specified
    					<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 324, Column 73: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    					<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 324, Column 29: start tag was here
    					<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 342, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 342, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 342, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 347, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 347, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 347, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Warning Line 348, Column 121: character "&" is the first character of a delimiter but occurred as data
    … IBFIN Introduce Short Courses in Islamic Banking & Finance ...</a></div></div>

    This message may appear in several cases:

    • You tried to include the "<" character in your page: you should escape it as "&lt;"
    • You used an unescaped ampersand "&": this may be valid in some contexts, but it is recommended to use "&amp;", which is always safe.
    • Another possibility is that you forgot to close quotes in a previous tag.
  • Error Line 352, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 352, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 352, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 357, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 357, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 357, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 362, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 362, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 362, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>
  • Error Line 367, Column 68: required attribute "alt" not specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    The attribute given above is required for an element that you've used, but you have omitted it. For instance, in most HTML and XHTML document types the "type" attribute is required on the "script" element and the "alt" attribute is required for the "img" element.

    Typical values for type are type="text/css" for <style> and type="text/javascript" for <script>.

  • Error Line 367, Column 74: end tag for "img" omitted, but OMITTAG NO was specified
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

    You may have neglected to close an element, or perhaps you meant to "self-close" an element, that is, ending it with "/>" instead of ">".

  • Info Line 367, Column 30: start tag was here
    						<div class="thumbnail"><img src="template_images/bullet2.gif"></div>

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